Q: What is Home Reverse Osmosis System ?

Answer:RO Series is a Home Drinking Water System that uses the principle of reverse osmosis to remove 95-99% of all the mineral and chemical contaminants from raw tap water. products gives you the quality of bottled water with the convenience of a faucet mounted on your kitchen sink. 

Q: Can you explain Osmosis ?

 Answer: Assume a membrane is semipermeable, allowing water to pass through while being closed to dissolved salts. Place a membrane between two compartments in a container as shown in the figure to the right. Then place a salt solution in one half of the container and pure water in the other half. Now a fundamental scientific principle comes into play. That is, two different concentrations of liquids within the same system will try to reach equilibrium (i.e. the same concentration of contaminants) on both sides of the membrane. Of course the only way for this to happen is for pure water to pass through the membrane to the salt water side in an attempt to reach equilibrium is called OSMOSIS.

Q: What is the actual process of the Home R.O. System ?

 Answer: The raw tap water first flows through a 5 micron particle FILTER[1] to remove dirt, rust and other sediment. The water then flows into a carbon briquette cartridge FILTER[2] which takes out 98% of the chlorine and organic chemicals. The next stage of the process is FILTER[3] 1 micron sediment filter or the Block carbon filter to filter multi-chemical compounds and suspension. [4] The reverse osmosis membrane (TFC) which will separate 95-99% of the dissolved contaminants from the water molecules. The contaminants are then washed down the drain. The next stage of the PPW* series process is the small CARBON FILTER [5] removes the remaining traces of chemicals, tastes and odors. Typical Flow Chart

The R.O. water is stored in a 3.2 gallons TANK[6]. Inside the tank is a balloon-like rubber diaphragm, pre-charged with 8-10 psi of air. As the tank fills, the air pressure increases and pushes the water out when the faucet is opened. The final element of the POLISHED CHROME FAUCET [7]. It is installed on the kitchen counter or the sink. It is a dual action faucet offering intermittent flow (to fill a glass, hold the handle down) or continuous flow (to fill a coffee pot, lift the handle up). 

Q: About filter micron ratings ?

 Answer:Most filters have a micron rating according to the porous structure. The lower the micron rating the finer the filtration. Higher micron rated filters are for coarse filtration and lower micron ratings are for finer filtration. As a guide suspended solids such as dirt, rust etc. are mostly removed at 20 microns down to 5 microns.

Q: What is Reverse Osmosis ?

 Answer: Reverse Osmosis is the reversal of the natural flow of osmosis. In a water purification system, the goal is not to dilute the salt solution, but to separate the pure water from the salt and other contaminants. When the natural osmotic flow is reversed, water from the salt solution is forced through the membrane in the opposite direction by application of pressure-thus the term REVERSE OSMOSIS. Through this process, we are able to produce pure water by screening out the salts and other contaminants. 

Q: What is the membrane and how does it work ?

Answer:The membrane consists of several thin layers or sheets of film that are bonded together and rolled in a spiral configuration around a plastic tub (This is also known as a thin film composite or TFC membrane.) The material of the membrane is semipermeable: it allows water molecules pass through while acting as a barrier to dissolved solids (i.e.: mineral chemical contaminants). When the feed water stream passes across the surface of the membrane, the  molecules penetrate the membrane surface, working their way around the spiral and collecting in the center tube. The remaining contaminants are concentrated and washed from the surface of the membrane down the drain.

Q: How does Reverse Osmosis differ from a Water Filter ?

Answer:Ordinary water filters use a screen to separate only particles of dirt sediment from water. Reverse osmosis employs a semipermeable membrane that removes not only particles but also an extremely high percentage of dissolved contaminants-molecule by molecule- from raw tap water.

Q: Does R.O. remove Bacteria ? Cryptosporidium ?

Answer: YES! An R.O. membrane has a pore size much smaller than bacteria virus, pyrogen or the cryptosporidium parasite. When functioning properly it will remove all microorganisms from tap water and produce sterile water . 

Q: What does the series drinking water tast like ?

Answer: The taste of the water depends on the amount of contaminants in the tap water originally. If 95% of dissolved minerals and chemicals are removed, the R.O. water may taste like distilled water (no minerals), bottled water (low mineral), or natural spring water (moderate mineral content).

Q: What does the series drinking water tast like ?

Answer: The taste of the water depends on the amount of contaminants in the tap water originally. If 95% of dissolved minerals and chemicals are removed, the R.O. water may taste like distilled water (no minerals), bottled water (low mineral), or natural spring water (moderate mineral content).

Q: How will the series water affect mixed beverages ?

 Answer: Because reverse osmosis removes invisible contaminants that mask flavor, it allows the natural taste of your beverages to come through. You will be able to use less coffee and still get the full flavor. Concentrated beverages like orange juice will taste tangier. You will probably be drinking a lot more water as well, since many people drink soda, Kool-Aid, concentrated juices, and beer as an alternative to bad-tasting tap water. Also,eliminates most of the lime build up on drip coffee makers, preventing the need for frequent cleaning. No longer will you find the white scum on the inside of pans after boiling water.

Q: How did Reverse Osmosis get its start ?

 Answer: Although the idea of reversing osmosis has been known for over 10 years, the practical application is a recent development. In 1962 the U.S Government funded the first R.O. plant which processed 1000 gallons clean water per day. Today, there are more than 3000 large R.O. treatment plants, each producing more than a million gallons of drinking water each day. In 1991, the U.S. Army bought 8,000 large membranes to their mobile water purification units for troops in Desert Storm. In 1993, the U.S. Government bought another 6,300 large membranes to purify flood water in the Midwest.

Q: Will R.O. remove Sodium from the water ?

 Answer: YES! Reverse Osmosis was originally designed to make sea water drinkable for the navy. It is ideal for anyone on a low sodium diet.

Q: Don’t people need minerals removed from the water ?

Answer: Most of the minerals that we receive are from the foods we eat. Only a very small percentage comes from the water we drink.

Q: Where is the series drinking water system installed ?

 Answer: The usually installed underneath the kitchen sink. So installers prefer to locate the equipment in the basement or in a crawl space since the water may stay cooler there, and can be easily run up to the as well as to a refrigerator & additional faucets in the home.

Q: Can the system be connected to an extra faucet ?

Answer: It only takes a ¼” tee and tubing to run the water to a refrigerator or a extra faucet. Some families run system to all of their bathrooms.

Q: What factors affect the quantity and the quality of the water produced ?

 Answer: There are four major variables to consider: 

1. PRESSURE. The greater the water pressure, the better the quantity and quality of the water produced. Water pressure of 60 psi ideal. include one booster pump can make sure the water pressure.

2.TEMPERATURE. 76*F is the ideal water temperature for R.O. 40*F water will cause the production of R.O. water to fall to half of that at 76*F. The maximum water temperature recommended is 85*F.

3.TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS (TDS). The higher the amount of dissolved contaminants in the water, the lower the quantity of water produced. A high level of TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS can be overcome with additional water pressure.

4. MEMBRANE. Different membranes have different characteristics. Some produce more water than others; some have better contaminant rejection capabilities; some have greater resistance to chemical abrasion for longer life. system include RE1812-70 The Thin Film Composite(TFC) membranes combine the best of these characteristics and are considered the finest membrane in the world.  

Q: How much water does the produce ?

 Answer: Under ideal conditions, the RE1812-70 TFC membrane is rated at 70gallons of production per day (70gpd at 60psi, 95gpd at 100psi). Under the average conditions, the consumer can expect 70-95 gallons of product water per day. But that’s still a lot of water for the average household’s drinking and cooking requirements. 

Q: Can the amount of water produced be increased ?

 Answer: Yes. There are several ways: 1.At night, fill a pitcher with water from the tank. The emptier the tank the faster the water production. By morning the tank will be filled with fresh water. 2. A second membrane can be added. An additional membrane is required to double the capacity 

Q: What is the guarantee on the System ?

 Answer: The System (excluding filters) is guaranteed for 1 years for material and workmanship. All defective parts will be replaced free within the first year. The membrane has a one year pro-rated guarantee. 

Q: What is the maintenance schedule for the System ?

 Answer: The three pre-filter cartridges should be changed every 6 months. The first is a 5 micron sediment cartridge. The second is a Carbon Cartridge. The third is a 1 micron sediment filters. (some system comes with the Extruded carbon filter.) Failure to change the cartridge every 6 months may allow chlorine to destroy the membrane. It is very easy to change the prefilters. Just order the needed filters from us and all system come with the housing wrench to open the filter housings so you can maintain your system yourself and feel confident about your drinking water. 

Q:When should the membrane be changed ?

 Answer: One indication is a gradual reduction in water production caused by a layering of minerals and salts on the membrane surface. Another is a gradual deterioration in the quality of water being produced. You my notice a different taste or more white scum on the inside of a pan of water you are boiling. This might mean the R.O. membrane is disintegrating and requires replacement  help you to know when you should change the R.O. membrane or the best buy unit (RO103TDS).

Q: What contaminants does Reverse Osmosis Remove ?

 Answer: The  System contains a quality carbon filter which will remove more than 98% of organic chemicals from the water. These include THMs(chloroform), DBCP, lindane, TCEs(trichloroethylene), PCEs(tetrachloroethylene), carbon tetrachloride chlorine, In addition to these organic chemicals, below is a partial list of other contaminants removed by the Re1812-70 TFC membrane. The percentage of removal shown below is a conservative estimate.

Q: What contaminants does Reverse Osmosis Remove ?

 Answer: The contains a quality carbon filter which will remove more than 98% of organic chemicals from the water. These include THMs(chloroform), DBCP, lindane, TCEs(trichloroethylene), PCEs(tetrachloroethylene), carbon tetrachloride chlorine, In addition to these organic chemicals, below is a partial list of other contaminants removed by the Re1812-70 TFC membrane. The percentage of removal shown below is a conservative estimate.

Q: Sediment and dirt filters ?

 Answer: Rope wound filters have been replaced with polypropylene filters commonly call poly spun filters. poly spun sediment filters have a high dirt holding capacity and have an excellent flow rate until they are totally loaded with sediment. Pleated washable filters have a large surface area and may be washed 3-5 times. Pleated filters don't have the depth of the poly spun filters to hold sediment but have a larger surface area due to the pleats. Pleated filters trap dirt on the surface so it can be mostly washed off. They will not restrict flow until they are totally covered with sediment. Sediment filters are used as whole of house filters or as pre filters before carbon filters, as carbon doesn't have the same high flow capacity and will restrict the flow when sediment clogs the carbon's porous structure. 

Q: You have alternatives to buying bottled water?

  Answer:We have an extensive range of under sink, bench top and portable filters to suit your needs. Filters can produce drinking water of the same or better quality as bottled water depending on which system you choose. These filters will remove things like chlorine, dirt, rust, bad tastegiardia, crypto and other bacteria 

Q: Is bottled water filtered water better?

 Answer: While much bottled water is of good quality, there are little or no regulations or means of ensuring bottled water quality... it is a self-policed industry for the most part. In contrast, the home water treatment industry is very heavily regulated. Manufacturers must do extensive testing and reporting to prove their products effectiveness at providing quality water. Manufacturers are required to supply "Performance Data Sheets" demonstrating the products ability to remove certain contaminants; bottled water companies are not required to demonstrate their waters quality. 

Q: What is TDS?

 Answer: Total Dissolved Solids, the total measurement by weight of all solids that are dissolved in water. The dissolved solids in water are primarily calcium and magnesium and would not be a measurement of contamination. Tests which measure the conductivity of water (often used by companies selling reverse osmosis and distillation system ) only give a rough estimate of dissolved solids, mostly minerals, and do not show water quality. Implying that these tests show water quality is highly misleading and should be considered unethical.

Q: Is Chlorine harmful?

 Answer: Chlorine was first added to a community water system in 1908 in Chicago and was instrumental in eliminating many types of water-borne disease such as Cholera and Typhoid fever. Prior to chlorination, many major cities had death tolls of 1 in 1000 people from Typhoid alone. Chlorine has been used to disinfect municipal water for over 80 years and has had some positive effects on public health. In the 1970's it was discovered that chlorine, when added to water, forms (chlorinated by-products) by combining with certain naturally occurring organic matter such as vegetation and algae. In 1992 the American Journal of Public Health published a report that showed a 15% to 35% increase in certain types of cancer for people who consume chlorinated water. This report also stated that much of these effects were due to showering in chlorinated water. The National Cancer Institute estimates cancer risks for people who consume chlorinated water to be up to 93% higher than for people who do not. The effects of drinking chlorinated water have been debated for decades. However, most experts now agree that there are some significant risks related to consuming chlorine and chlorinated by-products in drinking water.  

Q: Why do some areas test negative for chlorine?

 Answer: Virtually all city water systems contain some level of chlorine. The level will vary based on outdoor temperature, the season, distance from water utility and current usage. While chlorine may sometimes be undetectable on a certain day with a standard OTO test kit, that level can change dramatically day to day. Also some cities use ammonia at certain times as a disinfectant in order to reduce chlorination by products. Without chlorine the dangers of water borne disease would be too significant. An undetectable chlorine level, on a certain day, does not eliminate the need for an effective home filtration system.

Q: What do you do if you have water contaminated by radioactive matter?

 Answer: Move! Radioactive water is not very common in this country and is a more serious problem than should be dealt with by a home water filtration system. Many people confuse the contaminant "Radon" with radioactivity when in fact they are quite different. Radon is produced from decaying Uranium ore and can be effectively removed by carbon filtration.

Q: What are VOCs?

 Answer: Volatile Organic Chemicals are synthetic compounds that turn into vapor at relatively low temperatures. VOCs typically vaporize at a much lower temperature than water. Most synthetic chemicals found in water, such as pesticides and herbicides, are VOCs.  

Q: Do people on private wells need to use shower filters?

 Answer: There are many health and cosmetic benefits to removing chemicals and compounds from shower water, even on non-chlorinated private wells. Virtually all ground water contains traces of some chemical or chemicals that can be absorbed through the skin or inhaled. Also the shower filter system helps balance the waters pH, which is also a very noticeable cosmetic benefit.  

Q: What is the best container for storing filtered water?

 Answer: Glass is always best, however if glass is not practical, then a high grade polycarbonate material is best. Clear plastic bottles and pitchers with a #1 in the recycle triangle on the bottom, like the bottles used by Evian and the higher quality bottled waters, are the best option for water storage since they have been shown to release the lowest levels of plastic component chemicals into water. Translucent, colored or bottles with a number other than 1 on the bottom should be avoided because there is the possibility of higher levels of chemicals leeching into the water from the plastic.

Q: Do water treatment products require FDA approval?

 Answer: No. However, the certifications which apply to the  products require proof that all wet component materials meet FDA requirements for food grade materials. The performance claims of the  4000 system have been validated and certified by the California Department of Health Services and include toxicology extraction tests to show no harmful release of any substance into the filtered water.

Q: Are whole house systems (P.O.E.- point-of-entry) better than counter-top filters (P.O.U.- point-of-use)?

 Answer: P.O.U. systems are by far the best way to ensure the highest quality water since many water-borne contaminants come from the plumbing in your house, especially lead and vinyl chloride from the piping. By filtering water at the point-of-use you remove contaminants just prior to consumption, eliminating the chance of recontamination. Point-of-entry systems offer certain benefits but do not replace the benefits of point-of-use filtration.  

Q: What are the benefits of magnetic water treatment?

 Answer: While there are manufacturers that make beneficial claims for magnetic water treatment, there are no credible studies or documentation that magnetics offer any measurable benefits for drinking water, consumers should beware of undocumented claims.  

Q: How do you know if there are contaminants in your water?

 Answer: All public water systems contain some level of one or more unhealthful chemicals. Regulations only require periodic testing of about 90 chemicals. There are now more than 75,000 chemicals used in our society with over 1000 new ones being developed each year. Contaminant levels fluctuate throughout the year making it impossible to know the actual level of contamination in a central water system. So far over 2100 toxic chemicals have been detected in America's water systems. The risk is high; the cost for a sure solution is low, 10¢ per gallon with

Q: Are some people more sensitive to chemicals in drinking water and shower water than others?

 Answer: Definitely, small children and the elderly are especially more affected by contaminants in water due to a reduced capacity to deal with toxins and an under-developed or less tolerant immune system.  

Q: Which type of water treatment product should I purchase?

 Answer:First know what is in your water that you want to remove – specific contaminants. This is accomplished through a water analysis. Next investigate what type of systems are available that address your specific needs. There are a number of resources that you can use to make a good buying decision. Remember the overall water quality in the United States is very good, so never ever buy a product that is sold to you via scare or alarm tactics. And by all means check with several sources before you buy there are a great many over priced water treatment systems sold. 

Q: Where do I shop for water treatment system?

Answer: There are a number of very reliable places to purchase water treatment equipment. They include reliable home improvement outlets, internet sales sites and water conditioning companies

Q: Once installed does water treatment equipment require any service or parts?

 Answer:Yes, All in home water treatment equipment needs occasional attention and many require replacement filters & membranes. Follow the manufacturers recommended service and maintenance instructions.

Q: My water is dirty, it has a color to it. Why is it dirty and how can I make it clean?

Answer: If your water is coming from a well and the water is rust colored, then the problem is probably iron. If the water color is black it could be either sulfur, which has a smell like rotten eggs or manganese. All of these can be treated with an ion exchange water treatment system. A bigger problem is if the water has a very fine dirt content which may indicate the presence of colloidal clay. A good indication if you have a clay problem is if water in a glass stays cloudy after sitting for 60 minutes. If this is the case a coagulation filter system may be required. 

Q: My well water tested positive for coliform bacteria. What does this mean and what can I do about it?

 Answer: Coliform bacteria can be an indicator that the well may be susceptible to bacteria contamination. There are several option that you have. One is to disinfect the well and retest for coliform. If this second test also shows positive for coliform, then a hole house water treatment system should be considered. The most commonly used treatment methods are ultraviolet (UV), ozonation and chemical feed pump.

Q: Will the water from my tap make me ill?

Answer: Keep in mind that there have been very, very few problems with water supplied by local water municipalities. A bigger concern is water that is supplied by private wells or springs. If you are concerned about the quality of your tap water have it checked by a state approved lab. If the lab report indicates that there are no health related contaminants in your tap water there is little reason to worry. If you would like to treat your water due to an undesirable taste or odor there is a variety of good water treatment choices available to you. 

Q: What is a reverse osmosis system ?

Answer: Reverse osmosis systems produce pure water by forcing untreated water or tap water through a semi permeable membrane. The membrane lets only water molecules pass through directing it to the units storage tank,, the impurities that are separated from the water molecules are forced down the drain. The system consists of both pre and post filters which add additional contaminant removal. For more information on

Q: What is activated carbon and what does it do?

 Answer: Carbon used in filtration applications is produced by grinding a carbon source - like bituminous coal, peat or coconut shells and heating the material in the absence of oxygen to 1000 degrees to bake off impurities. The material is then subjected to 1600-degree steam to “activate” the carbon. The steam leaves carbon granules filled with cracks and pores, enabling them to store large amounts of chemicals. One pound of activated carbon (the amount in a standard ten-inch filter cartridge) has the equivalent surface area of a 160 acre farm. Carbon removes contaminants in two ways: through adsorption , contaminants are attracted to the surface of the activated carbon and held to it in much the same way a magnet attracts and holds iron filings; and by acting as a catalyst to change the chemical composition of some contaminants. Activated carbon is ideal for removing chlorine, organic chemicals such as many kinds of pesticides, THMs like chloroform and many VOCs that are components of gasoline, solvents and industrial cleaners.

Q: What is an ultraviolet system? How does it work?

Answer: An ultraviolet (UV) system uses UV to inactivate certain bacteria, viruses and cysts that may be present in the water source that flows through the systems UV chamber. The effectiveness of UV depends upon the dose of disinfectant received by the organism, which is the combination of UV intensity times the contact time involved. It is advisable to always pre-treat the water entering the UV system.

Q: What is distilled water?

 Answer: Distilled water is water that has been purified by passing through one or more evaporation –condensation cycles and contains essentially no dissolved solids. Usually contains less than 5.0 ppm of TDS.